Vision problems are common among school-age kids. Refractive errors are the most common reason for vision problems among school-age children. A child may not tell you that he or she has a vision problem because they may assume the way they see is the way everyone sees.
Common Eye Problems:
Amblyopia (Lazy Eye):
Amblyopia, also called lazy eye, is reduced vision in an eye that results from misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), a need for glasses (refractive error), or disruption of light passing through the eye (e.g. pediatric cataract). Signs and symptoms to look at for include misaligned eyes, squinting one eye, bumping into objects or other signs of poor depth perception, head tilting, and double vision. amblyopia medical care can include glasses, patching, eye drops, and sometimes surgery.
Also Read: What is nystagmus?Why does it occur?
Astigmatism is a condition during which objects at both distance and near seem blurred. This results from an uneven curvature of the cornea and lens that prevents light rays getting into the eye from focusing to a single point on the retina, thereby causing blur.
Any opacity or clouding of the normally clear lens of the eye.
Epiphora is the term for excessive tearing. Childhood epiphora is usually noted soon after birth but can be acquired later. when noted during infancy, it’s usually due to blockage of the tear drainage system. this type of tearing often improves spontaneously by 6-12 months of age.
Cortical Visual Impairment:
Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is vision loss due to any abnormality of the visual center in the brain. The eyes are normal, however, the visual interpretation center in the brain doesn’t perform properly and prevents normal vision.
During the development of the fetus, abnormalities in the visual system can occur. Some organic process abnormalities embrace coloboma, microphthalmia (small eye), and second cranial nerve dysplasia. These abnormalities usually lead to vision loss.
Double vision (diplopia) is typically caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), which causes one to see an object in two totally different places at the same time. the object can be displaced in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal fashion. Treatment for double vision can include prism glasses, strabismus surgery, and botox injection.
Genetic Eye Disease:
Several eye diseases have a known genetic abnormality. These diseases are often inherited and frequently there are different family members who had the disease. In cases of known genetic eye disease within the family, early evaluation is very important.
A disease leading to harm to the optic nerve. Elevated eye pressure is that the most common risk factor.
Longsightedness, or farsightedness, is a condition where an individual can see distant objects more clearly than near objects. generally, the farsighted eye is smaller than normal. hyperopia can be inherited. Infants and young children are usually somewhat farsighted, however, this lessens as the eye grows. Some children can have higher amounts of hyperopia which might cause a constant blurry image in one or both eyes and prevent normal visual development (amblyopia). If not recognized early, this may lead to permanent visual loss.
Nearsightedness, or myopia, is a condition where a person can see close to objects more clearly than distant objects. A myopic eye causes light from distant objects to be targeted before they reach the retina and leads to blurred vision for distant objects. Holding objects very close and squinting may indicate important myopia.
nystagmus is an involuntary, rhythmic oscillation of the eyes. the eye movements can be side-to-side, up and down, or rotary. nystagmus may be present at birth or acquired later in life. it may result from abnormal binocular fixation early in life
A cataract is a cloudiness or opacification of the usually clear lens of the eye. Early detection and treatment of cataracts are important in infants and young children in order to restore normal visual development. A white area in the pupil and misalignment of the eye can be a sign of cataract. pediatric cataracts that significantly obstruct vision need surgery. Patients subsequently need treatment with eyeglasses, bifocals, or contact lenses, and eye-patching.
Glaucoma is a condition that is related to high pressure within the eye. pediatric glaucoma is a rare condition that can present in the newborn or during childhood. Signs and symptoms of pediatric glaucoma include cloudy cornea, tearing, frequent blinking, light sensitivity, and redness of the eye.
Pediatric ptosis (drooping eyelid):
Ptosis, or drooping of the upper eyelid, happens in both children and adults. children can be born with ptosis (congenital) or acquire it during childhood. it’s caused by weakness in the muscle that elevates the eyelid. A droopy eyelid can block light passing to the retina in the back of the eye and create significant astigmatism that produces a blurry image in the affected eye. These situations cause lazy eye (amblyopia) and, if untreated, may result in permanent loss of vision.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP):
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an eye disease that happens in some premature infants. It results from abnormal development of the blood vessels in the retina. ROP is progressive, starting with mild changes and sometimes progressing to severe, sight-threatening changes. Most infants with ROP improve spontaneously, but some develop severe changes that need treatment with a laser. Complications of ROP can include strabismus (eye misalignment), myopia (nearsightedness), cataract, and, in severe cases, blindness from retinal detachment.
Strabismus is that the term for misalignment of the eyes. An eye may be turned inward (esotropia), outward (exotropia), upward (hypertropia), or downward (hypotropia). The misalignment may be constant or intermittent. strabismus can occur in the newborn, during childhood, or in adulthood. strabismus in children can result in lazy eye (amblyopia) and cause permanent loss of vision if treatment is delayed. Adults often experience double vision (diplopia). depending on the kind and reason for the strabismus, treatment may include eyeglasses, prisms, surgery, botox injection, and eye-patching therapy.
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